Pakistan, for its part, says India violated the ceasefire at least 3,097 times in 2020, killing 28 civilians and wounding 257 others. The fighting between Uganda and Rwanda also legitimizes Kabila`s claim that these countries are aggressors, an argument the Congolese leader echoed when he called on the Security Council to strongly condemn ceasefire violations and call for the “immediate withdrawal” of forces from Uganda and Rwanda. Its Minister of Justice, Mwenze Kongolo, even said at the SADC meeting in Maputo: “As far as we are concerned, the Lusaka Protocol is dead.” This report examines what fuels and inflames tensions between industrial and artisanal miners and how these tensions could be defused. It examines the challenges facing President Felix Tshisekedi and his government in changing the mining sector and examines the situation of three individual mines in this context. It is based on field observations of visits to areas around mining operations, interviews with local residents, community leaders and civil society figures, reporting on the mining sector, datasets to record violent events (see Appendix B) and other publicly available information. The Crisis Group has not been able to obtain formal feedback on this research and analysis from the state-owned mining company Gécamines or private companies that operate the mines described below, despite several efforts to contact local officials and official headquarters. [fn] Crisis Group consultants attempted to contact staff at the three mines covered by this study (Kipushi, Luiswishi and TFM). The Kipushi Mine Community Outreach Office referred questions to headquarters operating outside the Democratic Republic of Congo, which did not respond to subsequent requests from the Crisis Group. At the Luiswishi mine, Crisis Group consultants were unable to find a contact person either at the mine site or at an office of the operating company in Lubumbashi. At TFM, Crisis Group consultants were referred to the community liaison office, which refused to participate in the search. Prior to the publication of this report, the Crisis Group also contacted the headquarters of the owners of the three sites using public contact information, but received no response. Hide footnote This report is the first in a series of Crisis Group writings on extractive industries and conflict. The creation and administration of the Cobalt General Contractor could lead to renewed tensions between the factions of Tshisekedi and Kabila.
By decree, the subsidiary must include representatives of the president and the provinces on its board of directors in addition to those of the Prime Minister and the Minister of Mines. These appointments are likely to be embroiled in power struggles similar to those of Gécamine`s positions – although approval of Kyenge`s appointment as chief executive in June 2020 largely resolved the dispute over the management of the state-owned mining company. Some analysts who follow the mining sector of the Democratic Republic of congo fear that, given the large financial stakes that would be involved in the subsidiary`s transactions, there is a significant risk that funds will be misappropriated. [fn] Interview with a crisis group, mining expert, Kinshasa, January 2020. “What do you think of Gécamines` creation of a company to regulate mining crafts?”, Radio Okapi, December 20, 2019.Hide footnote The high tensions between Uganda and Rwanda are likely to influence the geopolitical order of the region; it could lead to further fragmentation and de facto division of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with each army occupying a highly volatile sector and military situation. If Ugandan troops remain in the north, Rwanda may be tempted to focus its efforts on Mbuji-Mayi. It could also persuade Uganda to give up and withdraw, so rwanda alone would be accused of aggression. Ugandan parliamentarians have already announced that they will submit a request for the full withdrawal of troops from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Last but not least, anti-Rwanda sentiments are already growing in the Ugandan military, even though government officials in both countries have downplayed the impact of the Kisangani conflict on the broad alliance between Uganda and Rwanda. Ugandans lost many soldiers in battle and some of their strongholds were taken by Rwandans, which is perceived as humiliation by the UDPF. During World War I, on December 24, 1914, there was an unofficial armistice on the Western Front when France, the United Kingdom and Germany celebrated Christmas. The Security Council has adopted numerous resolutions calling on Iraq to disarm its weapons of mass destruction unconditionally and immediately. As no peace treaty was signed after the Gulf War, the war remained in force, including an alleged assassination attempt on former UNITED States President George H.W. Bush by Iraqi agents during a visit to Kuwait;  Iraq was bombed in June 1993 in response, with Iraqi forces firing on coalition aircraft patrolling Iraq`s no-fly zones, US President Bill Clinton`s bombing of Baghdad in 1998 during Operation Desert Fox, and an earlier US bombing of Iraq in 1996 during Operation Desert Strike. The war remained in place until 2003, when US and British forces invaded Iraq and toppled Saddam Hussein`s regime from power. Please note that PA-X now includes agreements stemming from a wider range of negotiation practices – including some local agreements that are not related to a conflict, in which there have been more than 25 combat-related deaths.
These can be excluded from the search if all contract/conflict levels are selected, with the exception of Intrastate/local (other). “We don`t know anything at the moment, and we don`t have much confidence [in the ceasefire].” An example of a ceasefire in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was announced on 8 February 2005 between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. During the announcement, Palestinian chief negotiator Saeb Erekat publicly defined the ceasefire as follows: “We have agreed that President Mahmoud Abbas will today declare a complete cessation of violence against Israelis everywhere and that Prime Minister Ariel Sharon will declare a complete cessation of violence and military activities against Palestinians around the world.”  Security Council Resolution 39 of April 1948 established a United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to mediate between India and Pakistan to end the fighting in Kashmir and arrange for a referendum. After negotiations with both sides, the Commission adopted a three-part resolution in August 1948 and subsequently added a “supplement.” The three sides discussed the ceasefire, the terms of the ceasefire and the negotiation procedures for the referendum. Both countries accepted the resolution and an armistice was concluded on December 31, 1948. A month after the signing, however, the war continues. Although it does not dispute the content of the document, the main rebel group, the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD), refused to sign the agreement. RCD split in early May when Ernest Wamba dia Wamba was removed from his position as leader of the group, but refused to resign and established his headquarters in Kisangani with Uganda`s support. Rcd-Goma, supported by Rwanda, and RCD-Kisangani, supported by Uganda, have both requested the exclusive right to sign the peace agreement. This has delayed the implementation of the agreement and encouraged political groups to develop strategies to buy time. Since the signing, more troops have been deployed and the rebels and their allies have continued to make territorial progress. Numerous allegations and counterclaims of violations of the agreement have already been made, making the commitment of both parties to the ceasefire agreement increasingly suspicious.
Mufti said the original ceasefire agreement of 2003 was followed by direct dialogue between the two countries, as well as an internal dialogue between the Indian government and Kashmiri separatists, a move she would like to see repeated. Given the virtually frozen relations, what led to the sudden thaw that led to a reaffirmation of the ceasefire? Several mining-related activities take place on or near the Kipushi site. The largest operation is an underground mine, a joint venture between Gécamines and a Canadian mining company, Ivanhoe, which acquired a majority stake in 2011. [fn]”Kipushi Zn-Cu Project: Preliminary Economic Assessment”, Ivanhoe Mines, May 2016.Hide footnote This mine has a long history as it belonged to the state in colonial times. With respect to other mining-related activities, Gécamines operates an ore concentrator in Kipushi that processes the ore mined at a separate neighbouring site. In addition, a third company operates near the site to reprocess copper-cobalt slag. .