What Did the Munich Agreement Do What Three Countries Were Present

The “guarantees” of Germany and Italy will not “guarantee” Czechoslovak neutrality until the demands of Hungary and Poland are met – that is, their guarantee will not be given, if at all, until the division of Czechoslovakia progresses. It is to be feared that by then any guarantee, whether German and Italian or French and British, will have lost the meaning it might one day have. In 1933, Sudeten German leader Konrad Henlein founded the Sudeten German Party (SdP), which was “militant, populist and openly hostile” to the Czechoslovak government and quickly received two-thirds of the vote in districts with large German populations. Historians disagree on whether the SdP was or developed into a Nazi front organization from the beginning. [9] [10] Until 1935, the SdP was the second largest political party in Czechoslovakia, as German votes were concentrated on this party and Czech and Slovak votes were divided among several parties. Shortly after the annexation of Austria to Germany, Henlein met Hitler in Berlin on March 28, 1938 and was tasked with making demands that would be unacceptable to the Democratic Czechoslovak government of President Edvard Beneš.[9] On April 24, the SdP issued a series of demands to the government of Czechoslovakia, known as the Karlovy Vary program. [11] Henlein demanded, among other things, the autonomy of the Germans living in Czechoslovakia. [9] The Czechoslovak government responded that it was willing to grant more minority rights to the German minority, but was initially reluctant to grant autonomy. [9] The SdP received 88% of the votes born in Germany in May 1938. [12] The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on September 30, 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. He granted Germany the “cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia. [1] Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking. Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement.

On the 22nd. Chamberlain flew back to Germany in September and met Hitler in Bad Godesberg, where he was dismayed to learn that Hitler had tightened his demands: he now wanted the Sudetenland to be occupied by the German army and the Czechoslovaks to be evacuated from the region by September 28. Chamberlain agreed to present the new proposal to the Czechoslovaks, who rejected it, as well as to the British cabinet and the French. On the 24th, the French ordered a partial mobilization; The Czechoslovaks had ordered a general mobilization the day before. With one of the best-equipped armies in the world, Czechoslovakia was able to mobilize 47 divisions at that time, 37 of which were destined for the German border, and the mainly mountainous line of this border was heavily fortified. On the German side, the final version of “Case Green” showed how Hitler executed him on September 30. 39 divisions were approved for operations against Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovaks were ready to fight, but could not win alone. Hitler was ready for Chamberlain and ensured that his earlier demand for the surrender of the Sudetenland was repeated by pointing out that ethnic Germans in the area were being persecuted by the Czechs. Chamberlain felt that such a concession was too much, especially without discussing it with his cabinet colleagues, and asked Hitler to hold his hand until the consultations had been conducted. Hitler accepted the request, but did not stop his military planning.

He proposed an agreement to Hungary and Poland, stating that if they allowed Germany to annex the Sudetenland, they would also be granted parts of Czechoslovakia. As Hitler`s previous appeasement had shown, France and Britain were anxious to avoid war. The French government did not want to face Germany alone and was led by the British Conservative government of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. He considered that the German grievances of the Sudetenland were justified and considered hitler`s intentions to be limited. Britain and France therefore advised Czechoslovakia to comply with Germany`s requirements. Beneš resisted and launched a partial mobilization on May 19 in response to a possible German invasion. [14] As the threats of Germany and a European war became increasingly clear, opinions changed. Chamberlain has been criticized for his role as one of the “men of Munich” in books such as The Guilty Men of 1940. A rare defence of the deal came in 1944 from Viscount Maugham, who had been Lord Chancellor. Maugham regarded the decision to establish a Czechoslovak state with large German and Hungarian minorities as a “dangerous experiment” in light of previous disputes and largely attributed the agreement to the need for France to free itself from its contractual obligations given that it was not prepared for war. [63] After the war, Churchill`s memoirs of the time, The Gathering Storm (1948), claimed that Chamberlain`s appeasement of Hitler in Munich had been wrong, and recorded Churchill`s warnings about war before Hitler`s plan of attack and the madness that Britain insisted on disarmament after Germany had achieved air parity with Britain.

Although Churchill acknowledged that Chamberlain was acting for noble motives, he argued that Hitler should have been fought because of Czechoslovakia and that efforts should have been made to include the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, fear of another world war hovered over Europe. France and the United Kingdom, although they were great military powers, were not prepared for a conflict of this magnitude and were therefore looking for a way to avoid it. Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, contacted Hitler and requested a meeting to explore ways to avoid war. Hitler agreed to meet Chamberlain at Berchtesgaden on 15 September. Sudeten Germans welcomed Nazi troops to the area on October 1, despite the fact that large numbers of ethnic Czechs were forced to flee. Hitler was both happy and surprised that he had been able to take the Sudetenland without a fight. Chamberlain returned to London to welcome a hero. Cheering crowds in Downing Street heard his later infamous announcement that the negotiations had brought “peace for our time”.

The British government was divided over whether Chamberlain`s actions had been successful, with winston Churchill`s strongest opposition voice calling it an “absolute defeat.” Under the Munich Accords, the entire predominantly German territory in Czechoslovakia had to be handed over by 10 October. Poland and Hungary occupied other parts of the country and after a few months, Czechoslovakia ceased to exist and what remained of Slovakia became a German puppet state. My Government accepts Your Excellency`s note as a practical solution to the issues and difficulties of crucial importance to Czechoslovakia that arose between our two countries as a result of the Munich Agreement and, of course, maintains our political and legal position with regard to the Munich Agreement and the events that followed, as indicated in the communication of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of 16 December. Became. 1941. We regard your important note of 5 August 1942 as a most significant act of justice towards Czechoslovakia and assure you of our real satisfaction and deep gratitude to your great country and nation. .